Normative Daten

Normative Werte

  1. Murray W. Johns: A new method for measuring daytime sleepiness: the Epworth sleepiness scale. In: Sleep. Vol. 14, Nr. 6, 1991, S. 540-545,
  2. Murray W. Johns: Daytime sleepiness, snoring, and obstructive sleep apnea. The Epworth Sleepiness Scale. In: Chest. Vol. 103, Nr. 1, 1993, S. 30-36, doi:10.1378/chest.103.1.30.
  3. Cornelia Sauter, Roland Popp, Heidi Danker-Hopfe, Antje Büttner, Barbara Wilhelm, Ralf Binder, Wilfried Böhning, Hans-Günther Weeß: Normative values of the German Epworth Sleepiness Scale. In: Somnologie. Vol. 11, Nr. 4, 2007, S. 272-278, doi:10.1007/s11818-007-0322-8.
  4. Max Hirshkowitz, PhD, Kaitlyn Whiton, MHS, et. al. National Sleep Foundation’s sleep time duration recommendations:  methodology and results summary   Sleep Health 1 (2015) 40–43;


  1. Christian Guilleminault,  Eldridge FL, Dement WC   “Insomnia with sleep apnea: a new syndrome”. Science: 1973; 181:102: 856-8
  2. Guilleminault C., Frederic L. Eldrige, Blair Simmons, William dement: Slepp Apnea in Eight Children. In: Pediatrics.  Vol 58, 1 July 1976
  3. Guilleminault C., R. Korobkin, R. Winkle: A Review of 50 Children with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome. In: Lung 1981, 159:275-287
  4. Sullivan CE, Issa FG, Berthon-Jones M, Eves L.: Reversal of obstructive sleep apnoea by continuous positive airway pressure applied through the nares. In: Lancet. 1981 Apr 18;1(8225):862-5.
  5. Yu-Shu Huang, Christian Guilleminault: Pediatric obstructive sleep apnea and the critical role of oral-facial growth: evidences. In:  Frontiers in Neurology, HYPOTHESIS AND THEORY ARTICLE published: 22 January 2013 doi: 10.3389/fneur.2012.00184
  6. Ian Wilcox, Stephen G McNamara, Fiona L Collins, Ronald R Grunstein, Colin E Sullivan: “Syndrome Z”: the interaction of sleep apnoea,vascular risk factors and heart disease Thorax 1998;53(Suppl 3):S25–28
  7. Ayazi S, Lipham JC, Hagen JA, Tang AL, Zehetner J, Leers JM, Oezcelik A, Abate E, Banki F, DeMeester SR, DeMeester TR.      A new technique for measurement of pharyngeal pH: normal values and discriminating pH threshold  J Gastrointest Surg. 2009 Aug;13(8):1422-9. doi:10.1007/s11605-009-0915-6. Epub 2009 May 7.   SpringerLink: Full  Text Artikel verfügbar
  8. 8.Jessen NA, Munk ASF, Lundgaard I, Nedergaard M. The Glymphatic System – A Beginner’s Guide. Neurochemical research. 2015;40(12):2583-2599. doi:10.1007/s11064-015-1581-6.
  9. James C. Walton,* Zachary M. Weil, and Randy J. Nelson: Influence of Photoperiod on Hormones, Behavior, and Immune Function  Front Neuroendocrinol. 2011 Aug; 32(3): 303–319. Published online 2010 Dec 13. doi: 10.1016/j.yfrne.2010.12.003 

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